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Risks, Safeguards, and Reconstruction: A Model for Population Displacement and Resettlement

By Michael M. Cernea

© Tod Ragsdale, 2001
This article appears with permission of the author, Michael M. Cernea. It is found in Michael M. Cernea and Christopher McDowell (eds.) Risks and Reconstruction: Experiences of Resettlers and Refugees The World Bank: Washington DC. 2000.
"We must act so that poverty will be alleviated, our environment protected, social justice extended, human rights strengthened. Social injustice can destroy economic and political advances." (James D. Wolfensohn)

During the last two decades of the previous century, the magnitude of forced population displacements caused by development programs was on the order of 10 million people each year, or some 200 million people globally during that period. Thus, by their frequency, size, and dire consequences, development-caused displacements have become a problem of worldwide proportions.

Table of Contents

1 Social Justice and Forced Displacements

2 A Model of Risks and Risk Avoidance

3 Similarities in Refugee Resettlement Situations

4 Four Basic Functions of the Model

5 Major Impoverishment Risks in Displacement

6 The Basic Processes of Livelihood Reconstruction

7 Necessary Improvements in Current Resettlement Practices

References

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