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Risks, Safeguards, and Reconstruction: A Model for Population Displacement and Resettlement
By Michael M. Cernea
|© Tod Ragsdale, 2001|
|This article appears with permission of the author, Michael M. Cernea. It is found in Michael M. Cernea and Christopher McDowell (eds.) Risks and Reconstruction: Experiences of Resettlers and Refugees The World Bank: Washington DC. 2000.|
|"We must act so that poverty will be alleviated, our environment protected, social justice extended, human rights strengthened. Social injustice can destroy economic and political advances." (James D. Wolfensohn)|
During the last two decades of the previous century, the magnitude of forced population displacements caused by development programs was on the order of 10 million people each year, or some 200 million people globally during that period. Thus, by their frequency, size, and dire consequences, development-caused displacements have become a problem of worldwide proportions.
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