photo

The resettlement of the Gwembe Tonga people (pictured) took place in the late 1950s as part of the Kariba hydroproject reservoir impoundment. It was one of the earliest resettlement schemes in a World Bank-funded project, long before the Bank had a formal resettlement policy; and many of the lessons from the Kariba resettlement were later incorporated into World Bank policy. The resettlement was chronicled by Elizabeth Colson in "The Social Consequences of Resettlement: The Impact of the Kariba Resettlement Upon the Gwembe Tonga" (Manchester University Press 1971). It has also been the subject of the longest continuous resettlement study ever (40 years), by Drs. Colson and Thayer Scudder, American anthropologists whose students continue to research the demographic, social, economic, and health aspects of this large population displacement. The Kariba resettlement was recently reviewed by a World Bank Sectoral Environmental Assessment (SEA) for a proposed Power Rehabilitation Project for Zambia. Tod Ragsdale collaborated with Komex International (Calgary) on the social aspects of the SEA, which also include better provision of rural and urban electrification in Zambia, one of the more highly urban countries in Sub Saharan Africa.