Tod Ragsdale carried out Ph.D. dissertation ethnographic fieldwork among the Gurung tribal peoples of Mid Western Nepal in the 1970s and had earlier in the 1960s been a Peace Corps Volunteer for three years in Eastern Nepal working in community development. Ragsdale's village study obtained his degree from Duke University and was published as "Once a Hermit Kingdom: Ethnicity, Education and National Integration in Nepal" (Manohar Press, New Delhi, 1989). Pictured here is a confrontation between low-caste metal workers (Kami) seated on the ground and the majority Gurung community leaders seated on chairs.